28 March 2015

Le mani sulla città (1963)

Directed by the late Francesco Rosi, Le mani sulla città (1963) is a sort of neorealist curve ball thrown into the 1960s. It's inability to classify comes from its mish-mash of corruption films, neorealist documentary, New Wave auteurism, and politics all'italiana.   

The story is simple: a building collapses in a poor area of Naples, injuring many and causing one boy to lose his legs. In Italian fashion, the residents, local politicians, and capitalist developers swoop in and attempt to control the situation, each to their own benefit. The residents want safe and clean housing provided by the city. The city squabbles over how to proceed with the inquest into the collapse. Cautiously observing, the real estate developer plans his route of attack so that construction may begin as soon as possible. In the end, with the Church's blessing, the developer gets to build his new district of Naples and the people continue on as before. 

While the film is loaded with social commentary borne of one of Italy's economic boom cycles, various stylistic elements reinforce this 1960s optimism mixed with postwar desperation. For example, some scenes resemble neorealist films (the building collapse) while others could be taken from La Dolce Vita (the title sequence). The first ten minutes of the film exemplify this mixture of genre elements and easily qualifies as one of Italy's best film introductions.

In four scenes loosely woven together by editing, we see the developer outlining his new development, then we see the city representatives proclaim its creation, then the credits show a panorama of Naples' newer tower blocks, and finally a building collapses in a slummy district. Isolated, theses scenes might become four different films, but taken together they are a potent mixture.

The developer stands defensively in front of his canvas.
In the first scene, developer Edoardo Nottola (Rod Steiger), displays his grand vision for a new neighborhood in Naples. Filmed much like a Pasolinian journey to the Roman borgate, grand tower blocks defiantly adorn the hillsides of Naples like giant teeth,  facing a gaping gulch below. On the other side of the gulch where the developers stand, Nottola waves his hands around in the foreground while progress marches onward in the distance. The stark contrast between city and hillside reinforces the abrupt nature by which economic success literally carves up large areas of Naples.

The following two scenes reinforce the sense of change and progress in the air. In the second scene, the city assembly holds a proclamation for the grand development scheme. Talking mostly to themselves, the speaker proudly holds a sheet of paper while hovering over a large model of the development in the center. The room itself seems erased from the city; in the background a large Versailles-meets-Mondrian spread of grass and fountains seems too sleek for the previous scene. The representatives themselves look like they walked off of a Fellini set. Their fit black suits and thick-rimmed glasses are a reminder of the times. Something seems suspicious in it all; no one seems particularly interested, yet there is a ritualistic overtone set by the speaker's grandiloquent speech.

In the following credit sequence, this suspicion is further heightened by placing the camera in a helicopter and whizzing it around the city's tower blocks. Despite the nauseating camera work, the footage itself is a remarkable documentation of what are today considered some of the uglier buildings in Italy. To see them in their prime helps to understand the lure of modern conveniences in the postwar years. The eery music is a departure from the previous two scenes as well. It is the opposite of the exquisite city meeting; combined with dizzying aerial shots and floating, dissonant musical tones, with text overlayed, the credit sequence begins to feel like a giallo film.

To understand the next scene, it helps to know a bit about Naples. In certain historic areas like the Spanish Quarter, buildings are very tightly packed into a vertical nest of apartments. Clotheslines, flags, lamps, windows, shutters, and various other objects and instruments adorn the canyon-like walls forming a sort of vertical community. The streets echo as a result of the construction, and everyone can generally see or hear what is going on from any part of the street with window access. In this way, many streets in Naples serve as miniature theatres for the daily dramas of live.

The fourth and final scene of the introduction features one of these buildings collapsing in a particularly poor district. The damage is extensive and many people rush out from the buildings, with a large cloud of dust gathering overhead. The relative quiet of the street activity is broken as the first stone drops right next to a family cooking. The lack of music is substituted with screams and sirens, creating the feeling of a newsreel. The footage is spectacularly devastating. As the building settles somewhat and the falling stones begin to taper, the jarring shifts in genre and style create an exhilirating introduction to a fairly straightforward story.

The Italian corruption film often runs parallel to many giallo films in terms of style and tone. Bridging neorealism, auteurism, giallo, and corruption, however, makes Rosi's wonderfully directed film something entirely unique for its time. That it won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival in 1963 is a testament to its critical recognition as a culturally resonant film. As I watched the film in the context of 2015, I couldn't help but smirk at how much the film still resonates with contemporary Italy.


Le mani sulla città. Dir. Francesco Rosi. Galatea Film/Societé Cinématographique Lyre, 1963. 105 min.

07 February 2015

Stromboli, terra di Dio (1950)

When I moved to California I noticed that the earth shakes. Coming from Texas, where the land only moves if you drill it wrong, it is a profoundly odd feeling, and one that I still haven't gotten used to. Since this tectonic activity is on the mind I thought it would pair well with a review of Stromboli, terra di Dio (1950), Roberto Rossellini's dark, yet very rich and mysterious film.

Ingrid Bergman plays Karin, a displaced immigrant who marries an imprisoned local fisherman. Fleeing a "displaced persons" camp in Farfa, Italy, she marries a husband sight unseen to secure a safe, albeit temporary, future for herself. In reality, her husband Antonio (Mario Vitale) brings her to Stromboli, a volcanic island with a scattering of hovels perilously attached to its perimeter. This was to be her new home. Perhaps too predictably, her time spent on the island parallels the charring and grinding of the ground beneath her. She has trouble integrating with the southern Italian lifestyle consisting of fish, sun, and fish. Her tantrums become uncontrollable, and she turns to the village priest for consolation. Perhaps out of boredom and embarrassment for her new lifestyle, she redecorates the house to make it into a home. Unfortunately, her husband's latent disapproval of the feminization of his space brings her no respite.

In creating 'spheres' of personality for both Karin and the villagers, including the island itself, Rossellini's islanders seem shallow and simple. Even Antonio has a limited scope of understanding, thinking that by only providing fish for Karin, they would live happily, and that would be his extent of the marriage. Karin, however, also falls victim to the limits of her personality and often appears as a caged, delicate animal of little to no value to the community. 

In the end, Karin faces the cruel irony of fleeing from Nazis only to find herself fleeing from Nature itself. As she stares into the volcano's deep crater, her body exposed as if in self-sacrifice, the existential sensation of giving in, hopelessness, and a new beginning come to mind. It is a hallmark of neorealismo, and a fine documentation of one of Italy's more interesting island communities.


Stromboli, terra di Dio. Dir. Roberto Rossellini. Berit Films/RKO Radio Pictures, 1950. 107 min.

Iordanova, Dina. "Modern Marriage on Stromboli." Criterion Collection, 2013. http://www.criterion.com/current/posts/2908-modern-marriage-on-stromboli

11 January 2015

Anita Ekberg (1931-2015)

No one set the standard for platinum blonde quite like Anita Ekberg.

Having played bit parts in America in the 1950s, Ekberg met Fellini on the set of War and Peace in Italy. The rest is history. Passing off extremely well as a Marilyn Monroe-pastiche in Fellini's La Dolce Vita (1960), Ekberg was rocketed to fame as the Trevi fountain sex kitten named Sylvia.

Ekberg often played the mesmerizing female object because of La dolce vita. On screen (and also in real life) no other woman could counter the gravitational pull she had on men. It was a given that if she appeared in a film, she would have top (read, upper body) billing. Famous for her ample curves, sultry glances, and that squeaky-smokey voice, her breasts were often given their own shot in a film.

Although her body speaks for itself, her 50-year acting career is quite impressive. She averaged a project or two every couple of years and never stopped. Although appearing mostly in Italian films,  she was known to make the jump to English-speaking films as well. Here's a bit scene of hers from Back From Eternity (1956), in one of her few English speaking films.

As you can see, she never really left the fountain.

I will leave you with one of my favorite Ekberg characters, Sister Gertrude from Killer Nun (1978). Not only is this a bizarre lesbian horror film, but it is also one of her last great performances in my opinion. A must see if you like giallo films.

Goodbye Anita! Italian cinema will never be the same without you.

13 December 2014

Io sono l'amore (2009)

i Recchi

Every now and then, a contemporary Italian film gem reveals itself and reminds me why I love Italian cinema. Director Luca Guadagnino's film Io sono l'amore is one such film which deserves attention for its craft, story, and sense of audacity (see also Melissa P. for another amazing Guadagnino film).

The film does not have much of a plot to speak of, but focuses on a minutiae of events that occur in languid succession in and around contemporary Milan. The focus is on the Recchi family, a symbolic powerhouse of the Italian manufacturing sector. Unlike films from the postwar years in which the factory workers would be central narrative figures, the Recchi factory is overshadowed by the events that occur within the family, in their palace.  The palace is really a secluded, somewhat dull fortress-house in central Milan. Tilda Swinton plays Emma, a Russian bride who married into the powerful family and remains somewhat outside of the family rules. Her children are growing and changing, and she finds herself becoming increasingly restless after the death of the family patriarch signals a shift in family politics. Emma becomes unstoppably attracted to the cook Antonio, played by Edoardo Gabbriellini, a close friend of her son. As her attraction becomes more intense she begins an emotionally deep and physical affair with Antonio, however going out of her way to hide it. Eventually her son discovers that his best friend and mother are having an affair, and the movie comes to a quick and intense climax.

Nick Vivarelli writes in a 2011 issue of Variety that "Guadagnino's Tilda Swinton-starrer is an awards-season standout, landing a Golden Globes nomination, a British Independant Film Awards nod, and six BAFTA longlist bids, besides making several prix lists and pulling in over $5 million stateside via Magnolia Pictures." And yet despite being given rave reviews by the upper echelons of the festival circuit, Io sono l'amore's success waned after it lost out to the other Italian contender for Best Foreign Film at the Academy Awards, Paolo Virzì's La prima cosa bella (2010). For now it remains among one of the better 'art films' that Italy has ever produced, in my opinion.

Muted colors provide contrast as the story gets wild
And of course there is Tilda Swinton. Not just any Tilda Swinton, but Tilda Swinton playing a Russian-turned-Milanese factory giant's wife who speaks in northern Italian dialect. It is a rare phenomenon when international stars appear in Italian films and speak in fluent Italian. Her demeanor is demure, maternal, conservative, respectable. In short, she is everything a noblewoman ought to be and a prize catch at that. Her austere physique, highlighted by prominent bones and luxurious Italian textiles, is paired with an undercurrent of deep internal unrest. Swinton does a fabulous job of combining all of these qualities into a complex, unique character. To top it off, the excellent casting of Emma's daughter Elisabetta, played by Alba Rohrwacher, balances Emma's rigid demeanor.

I highly recommend a watch for the technique alone, but the story is also one of a kind and worth the time.


Io sono l'amore. Dir. Luca Guadagnino. First Sun/Mikado Film, 2009. 120 min  

Weissberg, Jay. "Review: I Am Love." Variety, 2009. http://variety.com/2009/film/reviews/i-am-love-1200476375/

06 December 2014

Lion of Thebes (1964)

Helen is often shown dependent on her potential mate...
Il leone di Tebe, popularized as Lion of Thebes, is a peplum film made in 1964, right at the genre's peak success. However, the skyrocket success of the first Italian westerns in the mid-60's soon diminished the peplums' popularity and consequently their studio time.

Lion of Thebes is a typical peplum. Fleeing by boat, Helen of Troy escapes her city's destruction with Aryan, a former lieutenant in the army. They shipwreck near Egypt. Days later, both destitute and lost in the desert, they get picked up by the caravan of the great pharoah Ramses.

What is interesting to me about Lion of Thebes is that, unlike many peplums, the female lead is not a quivering statuette like Ramses' wife. Helen possesses a grace that easily dissolves into raw power and forcefulness. She is (was) a queen, and often reminds everyone of that fact. Coupled with her beauty, no man or woman can resist her wishes.

...but she is actually controlling everyone, including Ramses.
Despite this power, Helen is unable to break Ramses physical imprisonment with only her political wits and a pretty face. Aryan always steps in when she needs brute strength applied to the situation.

When they are finally rescued by the Spartan army, Helen and Aryan go off together in love, relieved that their Egyptian imprisonment is finally over.

And now for a classic scene in the film. Only after Aryan rescues Helen from between two gigantic crushing stones does she realize that she really does love him. It is a proven formula of the peplum to grant love, success, victory, etc. only after the male lead has passed a feat of physical endurance and pain. After the man has proven his worth, the plot continues.


Lion of Thebes. Dir. Giorgio Ferroni. Filmes/La Société des Films Sirius, 1964. 87 min.